following points are based on available research world-wide:
1. Extracted oak compounds may help solubilize
procyanidins and maintain a stability of monomeric anthocyanins (act as
2. Aldehyde compounds
extracted from toasted oak products can react in much the same manner as
acetaldehyde to crosslink the anthocyanins and procyanidin monomers and
oligomers (act as cross-linkers).
3. Covalent bonds formed with these compounds are more
stable than those formed with acetaldehyde.
4. Oligomers formed through crosslinking have been
shown to be structurally different, possibly more soluble than natural seeds
and skin oligomers and polymers.